Skin and Hair

How does Botox reduces lines and wrinkles?

DEAR DOCTOR K: Can you explain how Botox reduces lines and wrinkles?

DEAR READER: "Botox" is short for "botulinum toxin." Botulinum toxin injections were first used for cosmetic purposes in the late 1980s. Since then, this therapy has gained quite a following. In 2012, these injections were the leading nonsurgical cosmetic procedure in the United States among men and women in nearly all age groups.

What are some common skin care myths?

DEAR DOCTOR K: I hear and read so much advice about skin care, and I don't know what's true and what's not. Can you address some common myths about skin care?

DEAR READER: You're right to be skeptical. My patients often tell me that they've heard about a way to keep their skin clear and healthy, and often it is simply not true. I'll debunk some of the most common myths I hear:

Is psoriasis linked to arthritis and heart disease?

DEAR DOCTOR K: My doctor thinks my arthritis and heart disease are connected to my psoriasis. Is this possible? I thought psoriasis was a skin condition.

DEAR READER: Psoriasis (pronounced so-RYE-uh-sis) is named for an ancient Greek word meaning an itchy or scaly condition. It is classified as a skin disease, but psoriasis is the result of an immune system abnormality that can cause problems throughout the body. With psoriasis, white blood cells of the immune system become overactive.

Is it dangerous to have shingles a second time?

DEAR DOCTOR K: A couple of months ago, my wife had shingles. The rash spread to her face, near her eye. This went away without treatment, but the doctor said it could return. If it comes back, does this pose any special danger?

DEAR READER: It sure does. Beyond the pain and discomfort that shingles can cause anywhere in the body, when it gets near the eye it can threaten eyesight. Shingles is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). This is the same virus that causes chickenpox. Once you have had chickenpox, VZV quietly remains in your body's nerve tissues and never really goes away.

What is the best way to treat blisters?

DEAR DOCTOR K: I wore a new pair of hiking boots on my vacation and now have several painful blisters on my feet. What's the best way to treat them?

DEAR READER: It sounds like you have friction blisters. A friction blister is a soft pocket of raised skin filled with clear fluid, caused by irritation from continuous rubbing or pressure. The irritation -- in your case caused by new hiking boots -- slightly damages the skin. The uppermost layer of skin separates from the layer beneath, and fluid accumulates in the space that's left.

What can I do to improve my brittle nails?

DEAR DOCTOR K: As I've gotten older, my fingernails have become very brittle. They chip, break and split easily. I've also noticed ridges. What can I do?

DEAR READER: Many of my patients notice that their fingernails become thinner, more brittle and fragile with age. Nails may split lengthwise, or separate in thin layers at the tips. The nails may look different as well. They may become yellowed or dull, and many develop thin, vertical ridges.

What is actinic keratosis — is it skin cancer?

DEAR DOCTOR K: I saw my doctor about a patch of rough, brown skin that I noticed on my upper arm. He said it is actinic keratosis and needs to be removed. Is it cancer? How will it be removed?

DEAR READER: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a precancerous skin condition. That means it is not cancer now, but is likely to become cancerous if left untreated. AK appears as raised, scaly pink or red-brown rough patches on the skin. The patches are most likely to appear on the face, back of the hands or other areas commonly exposed to the sun. They can cause discomfort and itching.

What happens to our skin as we age?

DEAR DOCTOR K: As I've entered my 40s, the skin on my hands and face has started to change. What happens to our skin as we age?

DEAR READER: The shortest answer is that our skin gets old, like the rest of us. In fact, the three layers of skin get old in different ways. The skin's outermost layer, the epidermis, forms a protective physical barrier. The dermis, or middle layer, contains collagen and elastin, which provide strength, firmness and elasticity. It also contains blood vessels, immune cells, nerves and glands that produce sweat and oil.

Do I need to get the shingles vaccine?

DEAR DOCTOR K: I have never had chickenpox. Do I still need to get a shingles vaccine?

DEAR READER: Not everyone knows the connection between chickenpox (a childhood disease) and shingles (a condition that usually hits adults). So let's begin with that. Chickenpox and shingles are both caused by the same virus: varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Once you have had chickenpox, VZV remains in your body's nerve tissues for the rest of your life, alive but inactive.

How do you treat eczema without steroids?

DEAR DOCTOR K: My 21-month-old daughter has eczema. Is there any way to treat this condition without steroids?

DEAR READER: Eczema, also called atopic dermatitis, is more than just dry skin. It is an inflammatory skin disease that often begins in infancy as an intensely itchy rash. Scratching leads to further irritation. The injured skin becomes chronically inflamed and more vulnerable to infection.