DEAR DOCTOR K: I have a herniated disk that's been bothering me for more than a year. I've tried exercise, medication and complementary therapies. None have helped. What are my surgical options?
DEAR READER: Let's start with a brief anatomy lesson. The human spine consists of a column of interlocking bones called vertebrae. They surround and protect the spinal cord. Vertebrae are stacked on top of each other. In between each pair of vertebrae is a little shock-absorbing cushion called an intervertebral disk. Intervertebral disks -- think of miniature jelly doughnuts -- prevent the vertebrae from scraping against each other. A normal disk has a jelly-like center (the nucleus) and a tough outer covering.